1. The International Breeding Regulations of
the Fédération Cynologique Internationale
(FCI) are binding on all member countries and
- These FCI breeding regulations apply directly
to all FCI member countries as well as the contract
partners. This means that breeding may only
be carried out with pedigree dogs which have
a sound temperament, are healthy in functional
and hereditary terms and are registered with
a studbook or register (appendix) recognised
by the FCI. In addition, they have to fulfil
the requirements specified by the relevant FCI
member or contract partners.
- The only dogs which are considered to be healthy
in hereditary terms are those transferring breed
standard features, breed type and temperament
typical of that breed without displaying any
substantial hereditary defects which could impair
the functional health of its descendants. The
members and contract partners of the FCI are
required in this regard to prevent any exaggeration
of breed features in the standards which could
result in impairment of the dogs' functional
- Dogs with eliminating faults such as e.g.
unsound temperament, congenital deafness or
blindness, hare-lip, cleft palate, substantial
dental defects or jaw anomalies, PRA, epilepsy,
cryptorchidism, monorchidism, albinism, improper
coat colours or diagnosed severe hip dysplasia
may not be bred.
- With regard to surfacing hereditary defects,
e.g. HD or PRA, the FCI member countries and
contract partners are obliged to record affected
animals, combat these defects in a methodical
manner continuously record their development
and report to the FCI on this matter when requested.
- The FCI, its member countries and contract
partners are supported by the Scientific Commission
in relation to evaluation, assistance and advice
in combating hereditary defects. In case the
Scientific Commission would issue a catalogue
of measures, the same shall be binding on being
adopted by the FCI General Committee.
- Competence and responsibility for breeding
rests with the member countries and contract
partners of the FCI and includes breeding guidance,
breeding advice and monitoring breeding as well
as the keeping of the studbook.
Breeding and development of dog breeds
must be based on long-term objectives and
sound principles so that the breeding does
not result in diseases, bad temperament and
lack of working skills.
Breeding must serve the objective of preserving
and preferably extending the genetic variety
(polygenicity) of the breed.
Only functionally healthy dogs are to
be used for breeding. It lies with any breeder
who selects a dog for breeding to determine
whether this breeding animal is mentally and
physically suited for breeding.
The breeder has to ensure both good mental
and physical conditions for breeding animals.
As long as a puppy is in the breeder's custody,
he must ensure a physically and mentally beneficial
environment for the puppy to guarantee proper
- The FCI member countries and contract partners
are under the obligation to draw up their own
breeding regulations based on the FCI Breeding
Regulations, in which the breeding objectives
are laid down. Such regulations must take appropriate
and reasonable account of the specific working
characteristics of the respective breeds.
Dog traders and commercial dog breeders are not
permitted to undertake breeding in a member country
or contract partner of the FCI.
2. The reciprocal rights and obligations of bitch
and stud dog owners are principally governed by
national laws, regulations established by the
national Kennel Clubs, their breed clubs or associations
and private agreements. In the event that such
regulations and agreements do not exist, the FCI
International Breeding Rules will prevail.
- Breeders and owners of stud dogs are strongly
urged to negotiate a written contract before
each breeding wherein the financial obligations
of both parties are clearly defined.
- The "owner" of a dog is the person
who has legally obtained the animal, who is
in possession of the dog and who can prove it
through the legal possession of a valid official
registration and pedigree.
- The "agent of the stud dog" is either
the owner of the stud dog or the person who
has been authorised by the owner to make this
stud dog available for stud service.
TRANSPORTATION AND MAINTENANCE COSTS OF THE
2. It is recommended that the owner of the bitch
or a person whom he can rely on takes the bitch
to and from the male. If a bitch is boarded for
several days by the agent of the stud dog, the
owner of the bitch will be financially responsible
for feeding costs, boarding fees, if necessary
veterinary care and any damage to the residence
or kennel of the stud dog agent as well as return
3. According to the laws of the different countries,
the person boarding and taking care of an animal
is held legally responsible for any damage caused
to third parties during that period.
The owner/agent of the stud dog must take this
into consideration when applying for personal
liability insurance coverage.
DEATH OF THE BITCH
4. Should the bitch die while in the custody of
the stud dog agent, the latter will undertake
to have the death and the cause of it certified
by a veterinary surgeon. He will inform the owner
of the bitch of the death and the cause it as
soon as possible.
Should the owner of the bitch wish to see the
dead bitch, the stud dog agent may not deny this
Should the death appear to have been caused by
negligence of the stud dog agent, the latter is
liable to compensate the owner of the bitch for
Should it be determined that the stud dog agent
was in no way responsible for the death of the
bitch, the owner of the bitch is required to reimburse
the stud dog agent for all expenses incurred as
a result of the death.
SELECTION OF THE STUD DOG
5. The stud dog agent is obliged to mate the bitch
only with the dog referred to in the contract.
Should this stud dog be unable to mate, no other
dog may be substituted without the prior consent
of the owner of the bitch. In any case, it is
forbidden to mate the bitch with more than one
stud dog during the same oestrus cycle.
6. In the event that the bitch is unintentionally
mated by a dog different from the one agreed upon,
the stud dog agent who has the bitch under his
custody must notify and reimburse the bitch's
owner for all the expenses resulting from this
In case of accidental breeding, it is forbidden
to carry out another mating with the stud dog
In such cases, the stud dog agent can not charge
any stud fee.
STUD SERVICE CERTIFICATION
7. The stud dog agent will declare, in writing,
on a stud service certificate, that the mating
took place with the agreed stud dog. By his signature,
he certifies that he was an eye-witness of this
If the organisation which keeps the stud book
with which the litter is to be registered requires
the use of particular documents, it is up to the
owner of the bitch to get them, fill them in correctly
and request the stud dog agent's signature.
It is compulsory that this stud service certificate
contains the following information:
a) Name and stud book registration number of
the stud dog.
b) Name and stud book registration number of the
c) Name and address of the agent/owner of the
d) Name and address of the owner of the bitch
at the time of the mating and, possibly the date
when the bitch was bought.
e) Place and date of the mating
f) Signature of the agent of the stud dog and
of the owner of the bitch
g) If the organisation which keeps the stud book
with which the litter is to be registered requires
a certified photocopy or excerpt of the pedigree
of the stud dog, it is up to the stud dog agent
to give these documents, free of charge, to the
owner of the bitch.
PAYMENT OF STUD FEE
8. The owner of the stud dog may refuse to sign
the stud service certificate before the stud fee
which was agreed has been paid. He is not permitted,
however, to hold back the bitch as security.
9. If the agreed stud dog does not perform the
mating for whatever reason or if the bitch does
not want to be mated, whereby no mating can take
place, the owner of the stud dog is entitled to
the payment of the fees as described at article
2. However he may not claim payment of the stud
10. Apart from the stud fee which was agreed,
the owner of the stud dog has no further rights
concerning the litter towards the owner of the
bitch. Specifically, he has no right to get a
puppy from the litter.
However, if there is a mutual agreement that the
stud fee will be a puppy, it must be made in writing
prior to the mating. The written agreement must
include the following provisions which have to
a. the date when the owner of the stud dog may
choose the puppy.
b. the date when the owner of the stud dog will
actually get the puppy which was chosen
c. the date by which the owner of the stud dog
must choose a puppy (after which date his rights
to choose the puppy will expire)
d. the date by which the owner of the stud dog
must come to take the puppy (after which date
his rights to obtain a puppy expire)
e. an agreement concerning the transportation
f. special provisions in the event of a stillborn
litter, a single living puppy or in case the selected
puppy dies before the owner of the stud dog gets
THE BITCH REMAINS BARREN
11. After a mating has been correctly performed,
the stud dog is considered to have fulfilled its
duty and the stud dog owner is therefore entitled
to the agreed stud fee. This does not necessarily
imply that the bitch will be pregnant. If the
bitch remains barren, it is up to the stud dog
owner either to offer a free stud service at the
next oestrus cycle or to refund a percentage of
the stud fee. Such an agreement must be made in
writing and included in the breeding contract
before the mating takes place.
The time limit for a free mating expires at the
death or transfer of ownership of the stud dog
or at the death of the bitch.
In case it can be proved (by a sperm analysis)
that the stud dog was infertile at the time of
the mating, the owner of the bitch has to be reimbursed
the stud fee.
12. Artificial insemination is not to be used
on animals which have not reproduced naturally
before. In the event the bitch is to be artificially
inseminated, the veterinary surgeon collecting
the stud dog's sperm must provide a written certificate
to the organisation which keeps the stud book
with which the litter is to be registered stating
that the fresh or frozen sperm was indeed produced
by the agreed stud dog. In addition, the stud
dog agent has to give, free of charge, the documents
listed at Art.7 (a-g) to the owner of the bitch.
The costs for collecting the sperm and performing
the insemination are charged to the owner of the
bitch. The veterinary surgeon performing the insemination
has to confirm to the organisation which keeps
the stud book that the bitch has been artificially
inseminated with the sperm of the stud dog originally
foreseen. This certificate should also include
the place and date of the insemination, the name
and studbook registration number of the bitch
and the name and address of the owner of the bitch.
The owner of the stud dog from which the semen
was taken must provide a signed stud service certificate
to the owner of the bitch in addition to the veterinary
TRANSFER OF BREEDING RIGHTS - LEASE AGREEMENT
13. As a rule, the owner of the bitch at the time
of the mating is considered to be the breeder
of the litter.
The right to use the bitch or the stud dog for
breeding may be transferred to a third party by
It is compulsory that such a transfer of breeding
rights/leasing agreement be executed in writing
before the breeding takes place.
The written agreement transferring the breeding
rights must be recorded in due time with the appropriate
organisation which keeps the stud book and, if
required, with the breed club.
The lease agreement must be enclosed with the
application to register the litter. It must clearly
outline the rights and obligations of the two
The leasee of the bitch is considered to be its
owner, as understood by these rules, from the
date of the whelping until the litter is weaned.
14 Puppies from two pure-bred dogs of the same
breed holding FCI recognised pedigrees without
any objection or restriction on them from the
national canine organisation are considered to
be pedigree puppies and are therefore entitled
to be issued FCI recognised pedigrees.
As a rule, puppies are to be sold and transferred
to a private individual in whose name the export
pedigree must be issued.
15 FCI recognised pedigrees are a certification
of parentage rather than of quality of the dog
STUD BOOK REGISTRATION OF A LITTER
16 In the absence of other agreements, the new
owner of a pregnant bitch automatically becomes
the breeder of the expected litter. The litter
will be registered with the stud book of the country
where the owner of the bitch is living (résidence
habituelle) and will bear his kennel name.
17 Each dog bred in and registered with a FCI
member country or contract partner is to be provided
with permanent and falsification-proof identification;
this identification is to appear on its pedigree.
In principle, a litter is registered with the
stud book of the country where the owner of the
bitch is living (résidence habituelle).
In case of dispute, the owner will be required
to produce documentation from the appropriate
authorities that he is physically residing in
a given country.
Exceptions are granted in cases where the breeder
of dogs resides in a country which does not have
an FCI recognised stud book. This breeder may
register the litter in a country which keeps a
stud book recognised by the FCI.
All litters are to be fully registered; this includes
all puppies reared to the date of application
Pedigrees, which are in fact birth certificates,
must be issued for correct parentage only. Normally,
a female is to be mated by only one male for the
same litter. In cases of deviations, the kennel
clubs are obliged, at the breeder's costs, to
have the parentage proved by DNA testing
BREEDING RULES OF THE MEMBER COUNTRIES
18. The breeding regulations of the member countries
and contract partners can go beyond those of the
FCI in their requirements, but may not be (inconsistent)
in conflict with the FCI International Breeding
19 These FCI International Breeding Regulations
of 1979 supersede the Monaco International Breeding
Rules of 1934. In the event of difference of opinion
regarding the legal interpretation of the text,
the German version of this document will take
" Approved at the FCI General Assembly on
June 11 and 12, 1979 in Bern.
" Translation revised by the legal commission
in Winterthur on January 22nd, 1990.
The parts in bold characters were approved by
the General Committee, October 2003, Münich.