Standard FCI n.143 1994-02-19
Group 2 - Pinchers , Schnauzers,
Molossian type, Swiss Mountain and Cattle dogs
The Dobermann is
a medium sized, powerful and muscularly built
dog. Thanks to the elegant lines of its body and
its proud expression of determination, this dog
conforms to the ideal figure of a dog.
The body of a Dobermann can fit in an imaginary
square particularly in the male case. The length
of the body, measured from the shoulder to the
buttock, should not be more than 5% longer than
the height in males and not more than 10% longer
in females. (The height is measured from the
withers to the ground.)
|Temper and Behavior
The character of the Dobermann is friendly
and peaceful. It is devoted to the family and
is caring toward children. In dobermann we look
for a medium temperament, a medium aggressiveness
and a fair tolerance before reaction. The Dobermann
is easily trainable and enjoys the work and
has good working ability thanks to its decisiveness,
braveness and strong temperament. Its self-confidence
and its intrepidness are also required considering
that this breed is very alert toward its surroundings
and reactive toward all kind of events.
The skull is strong and in proportion with the
rest of the body. Viewed from the top the head
resembles a blunt wedge. Viewed from the front
the occiput's transversal line is leveled and
does not curve toward the ears. The muzzle line
extends almost straight to the top line of the
skull and then gently round toward the nape.
The superciliary ridge is well developed without
protruding. The skull 's median sulcus is still
visible. The occipital apophysis should not
be too prominent. From a top and a frontal view
the lateral side of the skull should not be
bulging.The slight bulge formed between the
zygomatich arch and the masseter region ( cheek
bone) should be in harmony with the total length
of the head. The head's muscles must be strongly
Frontal nasal descent (Stop)
The frontal nasal descent (stop) is slightly
developed but clearly visible.
Nostril region (Planum)
The planum is large and well developed
but not protruding and the nostrils are well
opened. The color is black, on black dogs, and
allowed in a lighter shade for brown dogs so
that it is suited with their coat.
The muzzle is strongly developed and
proportionated with the head. The muzzle shall
be high and wide also in the upper and lower
incisor area. The labial opening should reach
The lips are firm and tight to the jaw and they
should ensure a perfect closure of the mouth.
The gum pigment is dark in black dogs and of
a lighter shade in browns.
Jaws, Dentition, Teeth
Upper and lower jaws are powerful and wide with
a scissor bite. Full dentition required with
42 teeth correctly placed and normally developed.
Medium size, oval, with a dark color iris. In
browns dogs the color is allowed of a lighter
shade. The eyelid is well tied to the eye bulb.
The palpebral fissure is bordered with eyelashes.
The ear is highly set to the skull and carried
erect. The crop is done in proportion with the
head length. In those countries, where cropping
is forbidden, the intact ear is equally accepted
and has the same value in a show contest. An
intact ear shall be of a medium size with the
front edge lying flat to the cheek.
The neck is of a good length proportioned with
the head and the rest of the body. It is muscular,
the skin is relatively tight and firm and the
superior outline gently curved. The posture
is erect as a sign of noble distinction.
Well pronounced especially in males.
The height and length are determinant for the
dorsal top line that is lightly ascending starting
from the croup.
Back (dorsal region)
The back is firm, strong and of proportionate
length covered with well developed muscles.
Of good length and well covered with
muscles. In the females the loins can be a little
longer to allow room for the breast.
A hardly perceptible inclination, starting
from the sacrum to the tail root. The croup
appears well rounded with a good width and covered
with strong muscles. From a top line view it
should not be either perfectly straight or noticeably
Chest and Thorax
The height and the depth of the thorax
must be well proportionated to the withers'
height and to the length of the body. The ribs
are lightly curved so that the thorax height
is almost equal to half of the withers' height.
The chest is of a good width with an especially
developed fore chest.
Starting from the sternum's posterior
edge and arriving to the pelvis the ventral
line of the abdomen is well tacked in.
The tail is highly set and docked short
so that 2 caudal vertebrae are still visible.
In those countries wheredocking is illegal the
tail may remain intact.
From every side of view the front legs
appear strongly developed, almost straight and
vertical to the ground.
The shoulder lies tight to the thorax.
The scapula is covered with stung muscles from
both sides of its spine and reach over the spinus
process of the thoracic vertebras. The shoulder
blade iswell set back and has an approximately
50 degree angle to the horizontal line.
The upper arm is of a good length and
well muscled. The angle between the scapula
and the humerus is of 105/110 degrees.
The elbows are well tied to the thorax
and not turning out.
The lower arm is strong, straight and
covered with muscles. Its length is in proportion
with the rest of the body.
The carpal joint is strong and firm.
With a solid bone structure that follow
the lower arm's vertical line. From the frontal
view the metacarpus appear straight, from a
side view it shows a flexion of a 10 degree
The front feet are short. The toes
are tied together and arched toward the top
(cat paw). The nails are short and black.
As a whole, seen from behind, the Dobermann
looks wide and rounded thanks to the strong
musculature of the pelvis and the croup. The
muscles that leave from the pelvis running down
the thigh and those that reach the knee and
the lower thigh, give a substantial width to
the whole hindlimb that appear to be very powerful.
The hindlimbs are strong parallel and perpendicular
to the ground.
The thighs are of a good length, wide
and well covered with muscles. The coxale (pelvis
bone) must have a good inclination. The thigh
rest at approximately 80 degrees from the horizontal
The femur, the tibia and the patella
form the robust articulation of the knee, which
has angulations of approximately 130 degrees.
The lower thigh is of a medium length
in proportion with the whole hindlimb length.
They are moderately robust and parallel.
The tibia and the metatarsal form an angle of
approximately 140 degrees.
The metatarsal is short and perpendicular
to the ground
Like the front foot, the hind feet
are short with the toes tighted together and
arched to the top. Nails short and black.
The gait is very
important for the type of work that the dog is
destined to do as well as for the morphological
evaluation. The movement is elastic, elegant,
agile, free and covers ground easily. The front
limbs bounce forward while the hindlimbs give
the necessary push to make a vigorous step. While
trotting, one of the front limbs goes forward
simultaneously with one of the hindlimbs from
the opposite side. During the movement, the back
the ligament and the joints, are firm.
The skin is well
pigmented and adhered everywhere.
The hair is short, hard, thick, smooth,
shiny, tight and uniformly distributed over
the whole body. Undercoat is not allowed.
The colors are black or brown with
rust red markings. The markings are clean and
well delineated. The markings are on the muzzle,
as spots on the cheeks and above the eyebrows,
on the throat, as 2 spots on the forechest,
all around the metacarpals and the metatarsals,
the feet, on the inside of the thighs and over
the perineal region and the ischiatic tuber
|Size and Weight
Males 68-72 cm (26,77- 28,35 inches)
Females 63-68 cm (24,80- 26,77 inches)
For both sex a medium size is desirable
Males 40-45 Kg (85-95 lbs.)
Female 32-34 Kg (65-75 lbs.)
Any variation of the standard is considered
a fault and during the judging would be penalized
according to it seriousness.
Inability to distinguish secondary
sexual dimorphism, not enough substance, too
light, too heavy, high on the limbs or week
Too wide, too narrow, too long, too
much or too little stop. Bad slope of the skull's
top line, Roman nose. Weak under jaw. Round
eye or slant eye, light eye, bulging eye, deeply
set eye. Cheek too prominent. Lips not tight
enough or overlapping too much. Labial opening
not meeting tightly. Ears set too low or too
A little short or too short. Too much
skin on the neck, dew-lap, deer neck, too long
and not in proportion with the rest of the body.
Back not solid and firm enough, sway
back, arched back or sloping croup. Insufficent
or too much spring of the ribs,insufficient
or not well developed forechest, back too long
overall, ventral underline too loose or too
retracted. Tail set too low or too high (flag
Too poor or too much angulation of
the front and hind limbs. Elbows loose. Any
of the bone or joint's position or length that
is different from the standard, feet too close
together or too wide apart, cow hocks, spread
hocks, close hocks, open or flat foot, toes
not well developed, pale nails.
Markings too light or not well delineated,
smudged markings, mask too dark, charcoal spots
on the limbs, markings too big or too small
on the forechest, long, soft, curly or dull
hair. Bold patches or with lighter hair color.
Large tufts of hair especially on the body.
Behavior and Temperament
Absence of psychological equilibrium,
too much or too weak temperament, too aggressive,
inappropriate biting, vicious dog. Too low or
too high tolerance before reaction.
Deviation of size up to 2 cm from the
standard should result in a lower grading.
Wobbling, tripping, stiff movement,
Severe inversion of the sexual dimorphism.
Yellow eye (raptor eye), wall eye.
Prognathism (underbite), enognathism
(overbite), level bite, missing teeth.
White spots, hair too long or too curly,
extremely light coat or with large bold patches.
Scared, shy or timid dog, distrustful
or vicious dog, nervous or too aggressive.
Sizes that deviate of more than 2 cm
over or under the standard chart.
Males should have 2 normal testicles fully descended
into the scrotum.
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